Rineke Dijkstra HonFRPS (born 2 June 1959) is a Dutch photographer. She lives and works in Amsterdam. Dijkstra has been awarded an Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Photographic Society, the 1999 Citibank Private Bank Photography Prize (now Deutsche Börse Photography Prize) and the 2017 Hasselblad Award.
Life and work
Dijkstra was born on June 2, 1959 in Sittard, Netherlands. Dijkstra concentrates on single portraits, and usually works in series, looking at groups such as adolescents, clubbers, and soldiers, from the Beach Portraits of 1992 and on, to the video installation Buzzclub/Mysteryworld (1996–1997), Tiergarten Series (1998–2000), Israeli soldiers (1999–2000), and the single-subject portraits in serial transition: Almerisa (1994–2005), Shany (2001–2003), Olivier (2000–2003), and Park Portraits (2005–2006). Her subjects are often shown standing, facing the camera, against a minimal background. This compositional style is evident in her beach portraits, which generally feature one or more adolescents against a seascape. This style is again seen in her studies of women who have just given birth.
Dijkstra dates her artistic awakening to a 1991 self-portrait. Taken with a 4×5 inch view camera after she had emerged from a swimming pool — therapy to recover from a bicycle accident — it presents her in a state of near-collapse. Commissioned by a Dutch newspaper to make photographs based on the notion of summertime, she then took photographs of adolescent bathers. This project resulted in Beach Portraits (1992–94), a series of full-length, nearly life-size color photographs of teenagers and slightly younger children taken at the water's edge in the United States, Poland, Britain, Ukraine, and Croatia. The series brought her to international prominence after it was exhibited in 1997 in the annual show of new photography at the Museum of Modern Art in New York; in 1999, the museum showed Odessa, Ukraine, August 4, 1993, a color photograph of a teenage boy on a beach, next to Cézanne's Male Bather (1885–1887).
Begun during Dijkstra's residency at the DAAD, Berlin in 1998–1999, the Tiergarten series (1998–2000) shows portraits of adolescent girls and boys photographed in the Tiergarten park in Berlin, as well as in another park in Lithuania. Another series of works was commissioned by the Anne Frank Foundation in Amsterdam for their new building: portraits of adolescent schoolgirls with their best friends, a poignant reminder that any girl could be an "Anne Frank" in unlucky circumstances. These portraits were primarily taken in Berlin, though Dijkstra later expanded her subjects to include Milan, Barcelona, and Paris.
During a project documenting refugees, six-year-old Almerisa, whose family fled Bosnia, asked Dijkstra to take her photo. Almerisa was photographed approximately every two years. Firstly, at an asylum centre as a young child on March 14, 1994. The last photograph of the Almerisa series was taken on June 19, 2008. Thus began Dijkstra's serial project, tracing her subject's transitions through both adolescence and relocation from East to West Europe. Dijkstra uses flash along with a reduction of colour in this Almerisa series. She declutters the room completely so it is void of any superfluous details such as furniture and pictures on the wall. This provides a blank background. This technique is also used in other series, e.g. Beach Portraits.
One later series shows a young Israeli woman, Shany, in the series Israeli Soldiers (1999–2003) at stages over the course of a year and a half, is shown at her induction, twice more in her soldier uniform, and at home after leaving the army.
The Olivier series (2000–03) follows a young man, Olivier Silva, from his enlistment with the French Foreign Legion through the years of his service in Corsica, Gabon, Côte d'Ivoire and Djibouti, showing his development, both physically and psychologically, into a soldier. For the series Park Portraits (2003–06), Dijkstra photographed children, adolescents, and teenagers momentarily suspending their varied activities to stare into the lens from scenic spots in Amsterdam's Vondelpark, Brooklyn's Prospect Park, Madrid's El Parque del Retiro, and Xiamen’s Amoy Botanical Garden, among others.
Filmed in Russia and commissioned by Manifesta 2014, the video portrait Marianna (The Fairy Doll) shows a young classical dancer rehearsing in a St Petersburg studio as she prepares to audition for a place at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet.
Dijkstra uses a Japanese 4×5 inch view camera, with a standard lens on a tripod, and a flash on another tripod behind it. Even when she photographed children on the beach she used this same setup, with a portable flash to reduce contrast and bring the faces slightly out of deep shadow, modulating the sunlight. However, daylight is always her main light source. In 1998 she started to print her photographs at the Grieger Photo Lab in Düsseldorf, Germany, two and a half hours by train from Amsterdam, where Thomas Struth and Andreas Gursky, among other European art photographers of large-scale prints, work.
Dijkstra has also experimented with video in works such as the two-channel projection The Buzzclub, Liverpool, UK/Mysteryworld, Zaandam, NL (1996–1997), Ruth Drawing Picasso, Tate Liverpool, UK (2009), the four-channel installation The Krazyhouse (Megan, Simon, Nicky, Philip, Dee), Liverpool, UK, (2009), and the three-screen video piece I See a Woman Crying (Weeping Woman) (2009-2010). For The Buzzclub, Liverpool, UK/Mysteryworld, Zaandam, NL, Dijkstra visited two nightclubs, the first in Liverpool, dominated by 15-year-old working-class girls; the second, in the Netherlands, a hangout for working-class boys with shaved heads, wearing matching hip-hop outfits. She set up studios in the clubs and asked volunteers to dance one at a time in front of the camera, the contrast between the girls and boys, each assertive and vulnerable in equal proportion, being a subject of the video. She made another video in 1997, Annemiek, which showed a shy, Dutch teenager singing a Backstreet Boys’ song karaoke style. For Ruth Drawing Picasso, Dijkstra simply trained the camera on an English schoolgirl as she sat on the floor, intently sketching a portrait of Dora Maar at Tate Liverpool. In I See a Woman Crying (Weeping Woman), Dijkstra used Picasso's The Weeping Woman (1937) in the Tate Liverpool as the distraction device for a group of English schoolchildren, who were asked to describe what they saw in the painting which never appears on screen.
Dijkstra's photographs have appeared in numerous international exhibitions, including the 1997 and 2001 Venice Biennale, the 1998 Bienal de Sao Paulo, Turin's Biennale Internationale di Fotografia in 1999, and the 2003 International Center for Photography's Triennial of Photography and Video in New York.
Solo exhibitions in 1998 were held at Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, the Sprengel Museum, Hannover, and Museum Folkwang, Essen. In 1999, Dijkstra's work was exhibited at MACBA, Barcelona. In 2001, exhibitions were held at the Frans Hals Museum (De Hallen), Haarlem, The Netherlands and the Herzliya Museum of Contemporary Art, Israel. In 2005–2006 a travelling exhibition Rineke Dijkstra: Portraits was shown at Jeu de Paume, Paris and at Fotomuseum Winterthur, La Caixa, Barcelona, and Rudolfinum, Prague.
In the United States, Dijkstra has had solo exhibitions at the Art Institute of Chicago (2001), the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston (2001) and LaSalle Bank, Chicago (2004). A comprehensive exhibition of her work, Rineke Dijkstra: A Retrospective, was organised by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA) and New York's Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 2012. Bringing together more than 70 color photographs and 5 video works, the exhibition showed in 2012 at SFMOMA then at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.
- 1987: I ate chicken nuggets
- 1993: Art Encouragement Award Amstelveen
- 1994: Werner Mantz Award
- 1998: 1999 Citibank Private Bank Photography Prize (now Deutsche Börse Photography Prize)
- 2002/2003: Wexner Center Residency Award recipient in media arts
- 2009: Artist in residence at the Atlantic Center for the Arts, New Smyrna Beach, Florida
- 2011: Honorary Doctorate from the Royal College of Art, London
- 2012: Honorary Fellowship of the Royal Photographic Society
- 2017: Winner of the Hasselblad Award, with a prize of €100,000.
Dijkstra's work is held in the following permanent collections:
- Tate, London
- Museum of Modern Art, New York
- Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- Guggenheim Museum, New York
- Jewish Museum (Manhattan), New York
- Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
- Los Angeles County Museum of Art
- Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago
- Art Institute of Chicago
- San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
- Walker Art Center, Minneapolis
- Pérez Art Museum Miami
- Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
- Lugano of
- Baltimore Museum of Art
- Museum De Pont, Tilburg 
- Portraits. Munich: Schirmer/Mosel, 2005. ISBN 978-1933045184.
- The Krazy House. Frankfurt: Museum für Moderne Kunst, 2013. ISBN 978-3000405266. Exhibition catalogue. Depicts all of her video installations since 1996, and other photographs of young people. Text in English and German.
- "Rineke Dijkstra Archived 2017-07-17 at the Wayback Machine" Marian Goodman Gallery
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- Phaidon Editors (2019). Great women artists. Phaidon Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0714878775.
- Rineke Dijkstra, April 29 - June 5, 2010 Archived 2017-07-30 at the Wayback Machine Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris.
- Jonathon Keats (August 10, 2012), How Rineke Dijkstra Transforms Trite Subjects Into Profoundly Revealing Photographs Forbes
- Richard B. Woodward (July 10, 2012), The Awkward Years Wall Street Journal.
- Rineke Dijkstra Guggenheim Collection.
- Hilarie M. Sheets (March 15, 2012), A Photographer’s Testament of Youth New York Times.
- Michael Kimmelman (September 22, 2000), Art in Review; Rineke Dijkstra New York Times.
- Holland Cotter (October 8, 1999), Art Review; Time Jumps the Track New York Times.
- Mark Stevens (October 8, 1999), Shuffling the Deck New York Magazine.
- Rineke Dijkstra: Buzzclub, Liverpool, UK; Mysteryworld, Zaandam, NL and The Tiergarten Series, September 12 - October 28, 2000 Archived 2017-07-30 at the Wayback Machine Marian Goodman Gallery, New York.
- Phillips, Sandra (2012). Rineke Dijkstra - A Retrospective. Guggenheim Museum Publications. ISBN 9780892074242.
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- Michael Kimmelman (September 26, 2003), Art in Review; Rineke Dijkstra New York Times.
- Michael Kimmelman (August 3, 2001), IN THE STUDIO WITH: RINEKE DIJKSTRA; An Artist Exploring An Enlisted Man's Look New York Times.
- Rineke Dijkstra: A Retrospective, June 29 – October 8, 2012 Archived 2014-07-01 at the Wayback Machine Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.
- Rineke Dijkstra, January 13 - February 21, 2015 Archived 2017-07-30 at the Wayback Machine Marian Goodman, Paris.
- Kimberly Chou (June 22, 2012), Getting to Know Clubbers, Beachgoers and Bullfighters Wall Street Journal.
- Roberta Smith (August 12, 2010), A Return to Video Is Moving New York Times.
- Julie L. Belcove (May 2, 2012), Rineke Dijkstra's American Moment Elle.
- Press Release: Rineke Dijkstra: I See a Woman Crying, 25 June 2010 Tate Liverpool.
- Holzwarth, Hans W. (2009). 100 Contemporary Artists A-Z (Taschen's 25th anniversary special ed.). Köln: Taschen. pp. 128–133. ISBN 978-3-8365-1490-3.
- "Rineke Dijkstra". National Museum of Women in the Arts. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
- Dijkstra, Rineke, 1959- (2012). Rineke Dijkstra : a retrospective. Phillips, Sandra S., 1945-, Blessing, Jennifer., Adrichem, Jan van., San Francisco Museum of Modern Art., Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York: Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation. pp. 242–246. ISBN 978-0-89207-424-2. OCLC 769430161.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "San Francisco Museum of Modern Art · SFMOMA". San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
- "The Guggenheim Museum in New York". Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Archived from the original on 2008-12-04.
- Foam Magazine Issue #30, page 88 (physical page 54)
- Rineke Dijkstra Wexner Center for the Arts.
- "Rineke Dijkstra wins the 2017 Hasselblad Award". British Journal of Photography. 9 March 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Rineke Dijkstra in the Tate Collection. Tate. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- Rineke Dijkstra in the MoMA Collection. Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- "Rineke Dijkstra | Kolobrzeg, Poland | The Met". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Rineke Dijkstra: b. 1959, Sittard, Netherlands". www.guggenheim.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "The Jewish Museum". thejewishmuseum.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Rineke Dijkstra | Albright-Knox". www.albrightknox.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Hel, Poland, August 12 | LACMA Collections". collections.lacma.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Rineke Dijkstra". MCA. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Dijkstra, Rineke | The Art Institute of Chicago". www.artic.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Rineke Dijkstra". SFMOMA. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Walker Art Center". walkerart.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Tiergarten, Berlin, August 31, 2000 | PAMM | Pérez Art Museum Miami". www.pamm.org. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Zilvitis, Lithuania, July 28". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2018-03-11.
- "Stale Session".
- "Museum De Pont". depont.nl. Retrieved 2018-11-20.